Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 May 29 ;140:111774. Epub 2021 May 29. PMID: 34062409
A qualitative and quantitative comparison of Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa immunomodulatory effects.
The present article reviews and compares the immunomodulatory activities of Crocus sativus (C. sativus) and Nigella sativa (N. sativa) and their main bioactive compounds. Immunomodulatory effects of these plants, especially with respect to Th1 and Th2 cytokines, are discussed based on relevant articles, books, and conference papers published in English until the end of April 2020, that were retrieved from Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. C. sativus and its constituents increase immunoglobulin (Ig-)G, interleukin 2 (IL)-2, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio, but decreased IgM, IL-10 and IL-4 secretion. N. sativa extract and thymoquinone reduce the levels of IL-2, -4, -10, and -12, while enhance IFN-γ and serum IgG1 and 2a. The reviewed articles indicate that C. sativus and N. sativa and their constituents could be potentially considered promising treatments for disorders associated with immune-dysregulation such as asthma and cancer.