Mar Drugs. 2020 Oct 26 ;18(11). Epub 2020 Oct 26. PMID: 33114618
Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) Isolated from the Brown AlgaActs on Inflammatory Myopathy as an Inhibitory Agent of TNF-α.
Inflammation affects various organs of the human body, including skeletal muscle. Phlorotannins are natural biologically active substances found in marine brown algae and exhibit anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we focused on the effects of phlorotannins on anti-inflammatory activity and skeletal muscle cell proliferation activity to identify the protective effects on the inflammatory myopathy. First, the five species of marine brown algal extracts dramatically inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells without toxicity at all the concentrations tested. Moreover, the extracts collected from(.) significantly increased cell proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts compared to the non-treated cells with non-toxicity. In addition, as a result of finding a potential tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor that regulates the signaling pathway of muscle degradation in.-derived natural bioactive compounds, Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) is favorably docked to the TNF-α with the lowest binding energy and docking interaction energy value. Moreover, DPHC down-regulated the mRNA expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppressed the muscle RING-finger protein (MuRF)-1 and Muscle Atrophy F-box (MAFbx)/Atrgoin-1, which are the key protein muscle atrophy via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) signaling pathways in TNF-α-stimulated C2C12 myotubes. Therefore, it is expected that DPHC isolated from IO would be developed as a TNF-α inhibitor against inflammatory myopathy.