J Diet Suppl. 2021 Aug 18:1-23. Epub 2021 Aug 18. PMID: 34405764
A Combination ofα-Lipoic Acid (ALA) and Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) Blocks Endotoxin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Cytokine Storm: A Possible Intervention for COVID-19.
The global scientific community is striving to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms and develop effective therapeutic strategies for COVID-19. Despite overwhelming data, there is limited knowledge about the molecular mechanisms involved in the prominent cytokine storm syndrome and multiple organ failure and fatality in COVID-19 cases. The aim of this work is to investigate the possible role of ofα-lipoic acid (ALA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in countering the mechanisms in overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inflammatory cytokines. An in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human epithelial lung cells that mimics the pathogen-associated molecular pattern and reproduces the cell signaling pathways in cytokine storm syndrome has been used. In this model of acute lung injury, the combination effects of ALAPEA, administered before and after LPS injury, were investigated. Our data demonstrated that a combination of 50 µM ALA + 5 µM PEA can reduceROS and nitric oxide (NO) levels modulating the major cytokines involved on COVID-19 infection when administered either before or after LPS-induced damage. The best outcome was observed when administered after LPS, thus reinforcing the hypothesis that ALA combined with PEA to modulate the key pointof cytokine storm syndrome. This work supports for the first time that the combination of ALA with PEA may represent a novel intervention strategy to counteract inflammatory damage related to COVID-19 by restoring the cascade activation of the immune response and acting as a powerful antioxidant.