Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Nov 15 ;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 15. PMID: 33203103
Effects of Allicin on Pathophysiological Mechanisms during the Progression of Nephropathy Associated to Diabetes.
This study aimed to assess the impact of allicin on the course of diabetic nephropathy. Study groups included control, diabetes, and diabetes-treated rats. Allicin treatment (16 mg/kg day/p.o.) started after 1 month of diabetes onset and was administered for 30 days. In the diabetes group, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased, also, the oxidative stress and hypoxia in the kidney cortex were evidenced by alterations in the total antioxidant capacity as well as the expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2/Kelch ECH associating protein 1 (Nrf2/Keap1), hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor (Epo-R). Moreover, diabetes increased nephrin, and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) expression that correlated with mesangial matrix, the fibrosis index and with the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The insulin levels and glucose transporter protein type-4 (GLUT4) expression were decreased; otherwise, insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS-1 and IRS-2) expression was increased. Allicin increased Nrf2 expression and decreased SBP, Keap1, HIF-1α, and VEGF expression. Concurrently, nephrin, KIM-1, the mesangial matrix, fibrosis index, and the fibrotic proteins were decreased. Additionally, allicin decreased hyperglycemia, improved insulin levels, and prevented changes in (GLUT4) and IRSs expression induced by diabetes. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that allicin has the potential to help in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. The cellular mechanisms underlying its effects mainly rely on the regulation of antioxidant, antifibrotic, and antidiabetic mechanisms, which can contribute towardsdelay in the progression of renal disease.