Biomolecules. 2020 Sep 28 ;10(10). Epub 2020 Sep 28. PMID: 32998376
Anti-Survival and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of 6-Shogaol on SW872 Human Liposarcoma Cells via Control of the Intrinsic Caspase Pathway, STAT-3, AMPK, and ER Stress.
Notably, 6-Shogaol, a bioactive natural substance, has anticancer effects on many types of tumors. Up to date, the anticancer effect and mode of action of 6-Shogaol on liposarcoma are not known. In this study, we investigated whether 6-Shogaol inhibits the growth of SW872 and 93T449 cells, two different human liposarcoma cell lines. Of note, 6-Shogaol inhibited the growth of SW872 and 93T449 cells without affecting that of normal 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Specifically, 6-Shogaol further induced the apoptosis of SW872 cells, as evidenced by nuclear DNA fragmentation, increased sub G1 population, activation of the intrinsic caspase pathway, and PARP cleavage. However, pretreatment with either z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, attenuated the 6-Shogaol's growth-suppressive and apoptosis-inducing effects on SW872 cells. Moreover, 6-Shogaol activated AMPK while inhibited STAT-3 in SW872 cells, and siRNA-based genetic silencing of AMPK or STAT-3 considerably blocked the growth-suppressive and apoptotic response of 6-Shogaol to SW872 cells. Moreover, 6-Shogaol also upregulated the expression and phosphorylation of GRP-78, eIF-2α, ATF4, and CHOP, known ER stress markers, in SW872 cells, illustrating the induction of ER stress. These findings collectively demonstrate that 6-Shogaol has strong antigrowth and proapoptotic effects on SW872 cells through regulation of the intrinsic caspase pathway, oxidative stress, STAT-3, AMPK, and ER stress.