J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Aug 23:114558. Epub 2021 Aug 23. PMID: 34438030
Hypoglycemic effect of astragaloside IV via modulating gut microbiota and regulating AMPK/SIRT1 and PI3K/AKT pathway.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Radix Astragali, the dried root of Astragalus mongholicus Bunge, has long been used in traditional Chinese Medicine to treat diabetes. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), one of the most active ingredients in the root, has been shown to have anti-diabetes ability; however, its underlying mechanism is still unclear.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the hypoglycemic effect and possible mechanisms of AS-IV in diabetic mice and insulin resistance-HepG2 cells. The components of the intestinal microflora in mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were determined using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms of specific members of insulin signaling pathways were analyzed.RESULTS: AS-IV significantly reversed the abnormalities in blood lipids, glucose, insulin resistance, as well as oxidative stress levels in T2DM mice. Histological finding showed that AS-IV could protect the cellular architecture of the liver and pancreas. AS-IV also regulated the abundance and diversity of intestinal flora of T2DM mice in a positive direction and increased butyric acid levels. The active role of AS-IV as an anti-diabetic compound by regulating the AMPK/SIRT1 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways was revealed using a T2DM model and verified through the intervention of inhibitors using insulin-resistance HepG2 cells.CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that AS-IV may be used as an anti-diabetic drug candidate owing to its effects of regulating gut microbiota and AMPK/SIRT1 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.