Molecules. 2021 Aug 10 ;26(16). Epub 2021 Aug 10. PMID: 34443430
Neurorescue Effects of Frondoside A and Ginsenoside Rg3 inModel of Parkinson's Disease.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta andα-synuclein aggregation. Accumulated evidence indicates that the saponins, especially from ginseng, have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, saponin can also be found in marine organisms such as the sea cucumber, but little is known about its effect in neurodegenerative disease, including PD. In this study, we investigated the anti-Parkinson effects of frondoside A (FA) fromand ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) frominPD model. Both saponins were tested for toxicity and optimal concentration by food clearance assay and used to treat 6-OHDA-induced BZ555 and transgenicα-synuclein NL5901 strains in. Treatment with FA and Rg3 significantly attenuated DAergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-OHDA in BZ555 strain, improved basal slowing rate, and prolonged lifespan in the 6-OHDA-induced wild-type strain with downregulation of the apoptosis mediators,and, and upregulation ofand. Interestingly, only FA reducedα-synuclein aggregation, rescued lifespan in NL5901, and upregulated the protein degradation regulators, including,,and. This study indicates that both FA and Rg3 possess beneficial effects in rescuing DAergic neurodegeneration in the 6-OHDA-inducedmodel through suppressing apoptosis mediators and stimulating antioxidant enzymes. In addition, FA could attenuateα-synuclein aggregation through the protein degradation process.