Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2021 ;2021:6627648. Epub 2021 Jun 30. PMID: 34306149
Linn. Extract Improves Cognitive Deficits in Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice via the Enhancement of Central Cholinergic Systems and VEGF Expression.
This study aimed to clarify the antidementia effects of ethanolic extract ofLinn. (OS) and its underlying mechanisms using olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice. OBX mice were treated daily with OS or a reference drug, donepezil (DNP). Spatial and nonspatial working memory performance was measured using a modified Y maze test and a novel object recognition test, respectively. Brain tissues of the animals were subjected to histochemical and neurochemical analysis. OS treatment attenuated OBX-induced impairment of spatial and nonspatial working memories. OBX induced degeneration of septal cholinergic neurons, enlargement of the lateral ventricles, and suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis. OS and DNP treatment also depressed these histological damages. OS administration reducedactivity of acetylcholinesterase in the brain. OBX diminished the expression levels of genes coding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor type 2 (VEGFR2). Treatment with OS and DNP reversed OBX-induced decrease in VEGF gene and protein expression levels without affecting the expression of the VEGFR2 gene. These results demonstrate that the administration of OS can lessen the cognitive deficits and neurohistological damages of OBX and that these actions are, at least in part, mediated by the enhancement of central cholinergic systems and VEGF expression.