Int J Mol Sci. 2020 May 27 ;21(11). Epub 2020 May 27. PMID: 32471239
Looking for a Treatment for the Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease: Preclinical Evidence with Co-Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide and Luteolin.
BACKGROUND: At the earliest stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), although patients are still asymptomatic, cerebral alterations have already been triggered. In addition to beta amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, both glial alterations and neuroinflammation have been documented at this stage. Starting treatment at this prodromal AD stage could be a valuable therapeutic strategy. AD requires long-term care; therefore, only compounds with a high safety profile can be used, such as the new formulation containing palmitoylethanolamide and luteolin (co-ultra PEALut) already approved for human use. Therefore, we investigated it in an in vivo pharmacological study that focused on the prodromal stage of AD.METHODS: We tested the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of co-ultra PEALut (5 mg/Kg) administered for 14 days in rats that received once, 5µg Aβinto the hippocampus.RESULTS: Glial activation and elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators were observed in Aβ-infused rats. Early administration of co-ultra PEALut prevented the Aβ-induced astrogliosis and microgliosis, the upregulation in gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes, as well as the reduction of mRNA levels BDNF and GDNF. Our findings also highlight an important neuroprotective effect of co-ultra PEALut treatment, which promoted neuronal survival.CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal the presence of cellular and molecular modifications in the prodromal stage of AD. Moreover, the data presented here demonstrate the ability of co-ultra PEALut to normalize such Aβ-induced alterations, suggesting it as a valuable therapeutic strategy.