Cell Transplant. 2021 Jan-Dec;30:963689720979162. PMID: 33508949
Shikonin Inhibits Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Line QBC939 by Regulating Apoptosis, Proliferation, and Invasion.
This study was designed to clarify whether Shikonin causes proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion in cholangiocarcinoma cells and to investigate the mechanism of action. QBC939 cells were cultured with different doses of Shikonin, and then 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assay was used to detect cell viability. Apoptosis of cells was detected using flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) assay after being stained with Hoechst 33242. The role of Shikonin on the invasive and metastasis ability was detected using Transwell invasion assay. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Shikonin inhibited proliferation and invasive ability of QBC939 cells in a dose-dependent manner; at the same time, apoptosis of cells was also observed in a concentration-dependent fashion. Moreover, Annexin V/PI assay and Transwell invasion assay results indicated that Shikonin induced apoptosis and invasion inhibitory probably due to upregulation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 expression and downregulation of MMP-9 and EGFR expression in a concentration-dependent fashion. Shikonin could enhance apoptosis and inhibit proliferation and invasion of QBC939 cells; such biological behaviors mainly occurred via upregulating the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8 and downregulating the expression of MMP-9 and EGFR.