Phytomedicine. 2020 Dec ;79:153316. Epub 2020 Aug 31. PMID: 32942205
The pharmacological activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on Alzheimer's disease animal model: A systematic review.
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently incurable and there is an urgent need to develop new AD drugs. Many studies have revealed the potential neuroprotective effect of Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), the main antioxidant in green tea, on animal models of AD. However, a systematic review of these reports is lacking.PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of EGCG for AD treatment using systematic review and meta-analysis of pre-clinical trials.METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed up to November 2019 in the following electronic databases: ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and PubMed. 17 preclinical studies assessing the effect of EGCG on animal AD models have been identified. Meta-analysis and subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate cognition improvement of various types of AD models. The study quality was assessed using the CAMARADES checklist and the criteria of published studies.RESULTS: Our analysis shows that the methodological quality ranges from 3 to 5, with a median score of 4. According to meta-analysis of random-effects method, EGCG showed a positive effect in AD with shorter escape latency (SMD= -9.24, 95%CI= -12.05 to -6.42) and decreased Aβlevel (SD= -25.74,95%CI= -42.36 to -9.11). Regulation ofα-, β-, γ-secretase activity, inhibition of tau phosphorylation, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and inhibition of AchE activity are reported as the main neuroprotective mechanisms. Though more than 100 clinical trials have been registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov, only one clinical trial has been conducted to test the therapeutic effects of EGCG on the AD progression and cognitive performance.CONCLUSION: Here, we conducted this review to systematically describe the therapeutic potential of EGCG in animal models of AD and hope to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the effects in order to design future clinical trials. Besides, the safety, blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration and bioavailability issues in conducting clinical trials were also discussed.